Allong, Genevieve. 1984. Changes in Carnival and in Popular Attitudes towards it between 1970 and the present day.
Thesis for Caribbean Studies Program at UWI. Anthony, Michael. 1989.
Parade of the Carnivals of Trinidad 1839-1989. Port-of-Spain: Circle Press. Bakhtin, Mikhail. 1984. Rabelais and His World.
Bloomington: Indiana University. Borde, P.G.L. 1876/1882. The History of Trinidad Under the Spanish Government, 2 vols. Reprinted 1982. Port of Spain: Paria.
Brereton, B. 1981. A History of Modern Trinidad and Tobago, 1783-1962. Kingston, Jamaica: Heinemann. ----- 1975. The Trinidad Carnival 1870-1900. Savacou: Journal of Caribbean Studies (11-12).
-----. 1979. Race Relations in Colonial Trinidad 1870-1900. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press Brierly, J.N. 1912. Trinidad Then and Now. Port of Spain. Campbell, S. 1988. Carnival, Calypso, and Class Struggle in 19th century Trinidad. History Workshop Journal 26:1-27.
Crowley, Daniel J. 1956. The Traditional Masques of Carnival. Caribbean Quarterly IV(3-4):42-90. Reprinted by Paria Press in 1982. Day, Charles. 1852. Five Year's Residence in The West Indies. 2 vols. London.
Deosaran, R. 1978. Work Ethic or Carnival Mentality? In Carnival: Working Papers on Caribbean Society. Department of Sociology, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Pp. 28-50. de Verteuil, Fr. A. 1984. The Years of Revolt: Trinidad 1881-1888. Port-of-Spain, Trinidad: Paria.
Downer, Simone. J'ouvert: A Trinidad Experience. Thesis for Caribbean Studies Program at UWI. Fraser, Lionel M. 1881. History of Carnival. Colonial Office Original Correspondence, Trinidad (C.O. 295/289), Trinidad No. 6460.
-----. 1896. History of Trinidad, 2 vols. Port of Spain. Hamilton, R.G.C. 1881. "The Causes and Disturbances in Connexion with the Carnival in Trinidad." Despatch to Secretary of State for the Colonies, London, dated June 13, 1881. Trinidad, National Archives.
Hill, E. 1972. Trinidad Carnival: Mandate for a National Theater. Austin: University of Texas Press. Johnson, K. 1984. The Social Impact of Carnival. In Carnival: Working Papers on Caribbean Society. Department of Sociology, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Pp. 173-208. -----. 1988. Carnival in Trinidad. Insight Guide to Trinidad.
Lee, Ann. 1991. Class, Race, Color and the Trinidad Carnival. Social and Occupational Stratification in Contemporary Trinidad. Selwyn Ryan (ed.). St. Augustine: Institute of Social and Economic Research, UWI. Pp. 417-433.
Pearse, A. 1956. Carnival in Nineteenth Century Trinidad. In Caribbean Quarterly 4(3-4):4-42. Reprinted by Paria Press in 1982. Philippe, J.B. 1824. The Free Mulatto. Reprinted by Paria Press, Port of Spain.
Powrie, B. 1956. The Changing Attitude of the Coloured Middle Class Towards Carnival. In Caribbean Quarterly 4(3-4):91-107. Reprinted by Paria Press in 1982. Quevado, R. 1983. Atilla's Kaiso: A Short History of Trinidad Calypso. St. Augustine: University of the West Indies.
Trotman, David V. 1984. Women and Crime in late nineteenth Century Trinidad. Caribbean Quarterly 30(3-4):60-72. -----. 1986. Crime in Trinidad: Conflict and Control in a Plantation Society 1838-1900. Knoxville: U of Tennessee Press.
Williams, E. 1962. History of the People of Trinidad and Tobago. Port-of-Spain: P.N.M. Publishing. Wood, D. 1968. Trinidad in Transition: The Years after Slavery. London: Oxford University Press.